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Batteries – Present and future challenges

In order to find long-term battery solutions for electric vehicles, both the present and future challenges have to be reviewed. In two complementary reports, this project sheds light on both aspects by identifying the gaps between the battery packs and vehicle requirements, and reviewing research trends of emerging battery technologies in the 2025 perspective.

The first part of the project relates to the current regulations for batteries and the on-going discussion for the development of future regulations and how this will influence the present available battery cells and the vehicle requirements. The gap analysis is based on legislation, scientific publications and vehicle requirements, both heavy-duty vehicle and passenger car requirements. On-going research trends are identified to analyse if the gaps can be closed in the near future. The title for the part is: “White spots on the future battery map induced ty the development of vehicle regulation”.

The main identified issues are the on-going discussions about the risks with electrolyte leakage and whether the organic solvents used in the battery cells could be harmful for battery users in any way. Toxicology shows typical solvents such as EC, DMC and EMC to be harmful even at low amounts. Beside the discussion about toxicity, the worry about thermal propagation is a main concern where relevant test methodology is lacking. The outburst of fire and explosions are as serious issues as the worry for toxicological effects. The report suggests future research directions towards solid state batteries or at least the use of gel type electrolytes to diminish the risk for electrolyte leakage.

The second part of the project; “Emerging Battery Technologies towards 2025”, reviews research trends to identify how these technologies may fit to different vehicles and vehicle requirements in terms of performance, weight, volume, and cost. The main question answered is whether there are any potential post-Li technologies to replace the Li-ion technology in electric vehicle applications by 2025. Overall, this study indicates that until 2025, any huge improvements in the performance of automotive batteries are highly unlikely as there are no game-changing technologies approaching the consumer market today.

Ladda ner rapporten: Batteries - present and future challenges (2 MB)

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